emergency first aid

When finding a casualty, you should ALWAYS carry out a primary survey. Click here to see how.

For your primary survey, you need to do the following -



Danger – check for danger before you start,​



Response – check for a response from the casualty.​



Call for help​



Airways – check the airways.​


Breathing – Check their breathing.​



Call emergency services​



Circulation – check there are no bleeding.​



Defibrillator (AED) – if casualty is not breathing, when calling for help, ask for a defibrillator to be bought along.​

Secondary survey – feel from head to toe for any broken bones and lumps​.


Click here to see how to administer CPR

If the casualty is not breathing, AFTER calling for help, start CPR at a rate of 100 -120 chest compressions a minute followed by two rescue breaths.​



Once the defibrillator arrives, have the person who bought it to set it up whilst you carry on with CPR.​


The defibrillator will tell you what to do once turned on. Do NOT stop chest compressions until the defibrillator tells you to clear.​



Once CPR has been started, you should only stop once the casualty comes around, professional help has arrived and they take over, or you become physically exhausted. 

CPR - Chest compressions

​For children under 1, use two fingers on the middle of their chest, under their ribcage. Compressions should be one to one and a half inches deep. ​

For children aged between 1 and 12, you can use either one or two hands depending on the size of the child. Compressions should only be one to one and a half inches deep.​

This is a case by case judgement. If you do not feel you will be able to get to the required depth with one hand, use two. ​

Children become ‘adults’ when you can see signs of puberty.

CPR - Rescue Breaths

For children under 1, be very gentle. Use the breath in your cheeks rather than a full breath from your lungs. You can cover mouth and nose with your mouth when providing these breaths. Only tilt their head so it looks like they are ‘sniffing the air’.​

For children aged between 1 and 12, be gentle with your breaths. Do no give your full lungs of air. Be careful not to tilt their head too far back.​

Did You Know?

When doing CPR on children, you might have to make a decision on a case by case basis. By completing your peadiatric training and attending regular refresher sessions every half term, you should feel confident in making these decisions.

Quick help diagram

Check for danger. Is there any danger?

Check for a response. Do they respond?



Remove any danger before you start helping the casualty.


Ask what happened and check they are okay.

Call for help

If you can see a blockage, remove it, but do not stick your fingers down their throat.

If AED arrives, ask the person who bought it to turn it on and follow the instructions while you continue CPR


Check airways.

Are they clear?

Leave casualty where they are, stay with them until the emergency services arrive.

Check Breathing.

Are they breathing?

Call emergency services and ask if an AED is available.

Start CPR

Check circulation and complete secondary survey. Is secondary survey clear?

Put into recovery position and monitor until emergency services arrive.

If casualty starts breathing








Only stop CPR if casualty starts breathing, a team of teachers or emergency services arrive to take over or you become physically exhausted.

Automated external defibrillator (AED)

Recovery position

This is used when a casualty is breathing but unresponsive.

This ensures the casualty does not choke should they vomit.

Keep checking on the casualty, ensuring they are still breathing until paramedics arrive to take over. 

Never leave a casualty alone

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